In this dissertation, the measures taken by Australian government, as well as by the NGOs, are studied in detail. The role of nursing in employing these measures is analysed and accordingly some suggestions are also given. The working of Australian National Council on AIDS and Related Diseases or ANCARD in terms of public health is considered, along with various strategies such as the Seventh National HIV Strategy 2014-2017. The multi-disciplinary approach taken towards taming this deadly disease is assessed. Various training and development programmes along with community education will raise awareness among the public, thereby, improving their health.
A. World Health Organization. (2016). Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. World Health Organization.
B. Hayes, R., Sabapathy, K. and Fidler, S. (2011). Universal Testing and Treatment as an HIV Prevention Strategy: Research Questions and Methods. Current HIV Research, 9(6), pp.429- 445.
Here the major and minor concepts of this model is analysed along the lines of primary health care. The influence exerted by the internal and external environment around humans are examined to find the degree of impact on his/her health. The concept of stressors, stability, and degree of reaction, negentropy, prevention as intervention etc. are also thoroughly studied. The lines of defence and lines of resistance are also evaluated to make this system more robust. The demerits of this system and suggestions to improve it, forms an important portion of this dissertation.
A. Neuman, B. M., & Fawcett, J. (2002). The Neuman systems model. Pearson Education, Incorporated.
B. Verberk, F., & Fawcett, J. (2017). Thoughts About Created Environment: A Neuman Systems Model Concept. Nursing science quarterly, 30(2), 179-181.
In this dissertation, the social stigma associated to Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the primary focus. Sexual health of woman has traditionally been the cause of societal shame for woman of all classes. The role played by education and awareness programmes in lowering the stigma are also analysed. Different classes of woman are examined separately to conclude how this stigma is prevalent equally among all strata of society. The inherent biasness for women regarding their sexual health is also a factor of deliberation. The recommendations for tackling this psychological aspect of sexual diseases is also looked into while studying about Polycystic ovarian syndrome.
A. Pastore, L. M., Patrie, J. T., Morris, W. L., Dalal, P., & Bray, M. J. (2011). Depression symptoms and body dissatisfaction association among polycystic ovary syndrome women. Journal of psychosomatic research, 71(4), 270-276.
B. Ghazeeri, G., Fakih, A., Abbas, H. A., Harajly, S., & Awwad, J. (2013). Anxiety, cognitive, and depressive assessment in adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a pilot study. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology, 26(5), 269- 273.
The respiratory diseases that are associated to various sectors such as cement industry, mining industry etc. Each of these industries has a protective mechanism to prevent its employees from such diseases. The neglect of these protections is studied and accordingly the data is collected to arrive at a conclusion. Moreover, the occupational safety aspects are also included while analysing the spread of these diseases. The occupational epidemiology is critically reviewed to find out the effect on its worker. The effect of these diseases is not equal on everyone, and this also becomes a part of this research.
A. https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/system/files/documents/1702/occupational_respiratory_disease_austra lia.pdf
B. Govender, N., Lalloo, U. G., & Naidoo, R. N. (2011). Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a hospital-based case–control study. Thorax, 66(7), 597- 601.
Here, the research topic is centred around the economic and racial inequalities on maternal health. The analysis is also extended towards the historical injustice and its present implication of different races. Expecting mothers from this section of the society face financial and social repression due to their background. These kinds of discriminations are also analysed and accordingly the government measure taken in this regard is looked into. The training programmes and awareness campaigns undertaken by various governmental and non-governmental bodies are assessed to find out how successful they have been.
A. de Graaf, J. P., Steegers, E. A., & Bonsel, G. J. (2013). Inequalities in perinatal and maternal health. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 25(2), 98-108.
B. Gray, K. E., Wallace, E. R., Nelson, K. R., Reed, S. D., & Schiff, M. A. (2012). Population‐Based Study of Risk Factors for Severe Maternal Morbidity. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology, 26(6), 506-514.
Here the analysis revolves around the mental patients especially those suffering from dementia. The level of anxiety among them is always very intense, which is why most cognitive behavioural therapies are focused to addressed them. Several health promotion measures, both by government and NGOs, also aims at lowering this anxiety related stress among the dementia patients. The major psychotherapeutic treatment methods as per the World Health Organization are: psychodynamic therapy, CBT, supportive counselling (Rogerian person-centred therapy) and IPT. These therapies are not just limited to the patients, but, they also focus on the family members of these patients.
A. Stanley, M. A., Calleo, J., Bush, A. L., Wilson, N., Snow, A. L., Kraus-Schuman, C., … & Williams, S. P. (2013). The Peaceful Mind program: A pilot test of a cognitive–behavioral therapy–based intervention for anxious patients with Dementia. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(7), 696-708.
B. Orgeta, V., Spector, A., & Orrell, M. (2011). Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety in dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5).
This dissertation seeks to look into the fact of harmful use of drug and alcohol by the aboriginal community. After a brief background about the harmful effects of addiction, the treatment that the aboriginals undergo need to be critically analysed. The funds allocated to these treatments and also the various measures undertaken by government and NGOs in this regard is studied in detail. The results of these study are then appraised and accordingly recommendations are given in order to improve it further. The conditions of the rehabs, their role in working with this community to spread awareness is also examined in this study.
B. Chenhall, R., & Senior, K. (2012). Treating Indigenous Australians with alcohol/drug problems: assessing quality of life. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 30(2), 130-145.
This topic mainly revolved around the economic as well as the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among the aboriginal communities. The out of pocket expenditure on health especially for diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes etc. are analysed. This analysis also focusses on the health sector insurance and other government measure that are taken to bolster the indigenous community from such health ailments. The health sector funding by the government and its ability to meet the requirements of even the lowest strata is examined and accordingly recommendations are made. The feasibility of these recommendations is also studied.
A. Di Cesare, M., Khang, Y. H., Asaria, P., Blakely, T., Cowan, M. J., Farzadfar, F., … & Oum, S. (2013). Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses. The Lancet, 381(9866), 585-597.
B. Vass, A., Mitchell, A., & Dhurrkay, Y. (2011). Health literacy and Australian Indigenous peoples: an analysis of the role of language and worldview. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 22(1), 33-37.
The aspect of power imbalance is looked into while studying sexual exploitation among children. The awareness programmes conducted by government and NGOs are studied to find out their effectiveness. The role of prevention and intervention measures are also examined and accordingly some examples are cited, and real-life implementation problems are studied. Different psychotherapy and behavioural treatments are examined that are used by practitioners to rehabilitation of the sexual abuse victims. The shortcomings of these analysis are also evaluated and
subsequently recommendations are made to develop a more robust mechanism of tackling this issue.
A. Collin-Vézina, D., Daigneault, I., & Hébert, M. (2013). Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: Prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 7(1), 22.
B. Kloess, J. A., Beech, A. R., & Harkins, L. (2014). Online child sexual exploitation: Prevalence, process, and offender characteristics. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(2), 126-139.
In this dissertation, a feasibility study of a national screening programme in Australia has to be done. While doing this study, previous measures taken up by the government are also studied to figure out all the impediments that existed then. The analysis of this is done on the basis of cost incurred and health benefits for the individuals. The evidences relating to the study must be also examined to find out if it is still relevant. Moreover, the causes of lung cancer and how it affects the normal life of people is also examined. Further, recommendations are also made to make the screening programme more inclusive.
A. Goulart, B. H., Bensink, M. E., Mummy, D. G., & Ramsey, S. D. (2012). Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography: costs, national expenditures, and cost- effectiveness. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 10(2), 267-275.
B. Field, J. K., Oudkerk, M., Pedersen, J. H., & Duffy, S. W. (2013). Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer. The Lancet, 382(9893), 732-741.